The congenital diaphragmal hernia (CDH) arises through a missing or weak diaphragm musculature. Thereby the contents of the abdominal cavity protrudes into the thoracic space and displaces the structures there.
Fig. 27 - Congenital diaphragmal
Fig. 27 On the left side of the child (right in the image) the intestinal loops are visible in the thorax region and have displaced the heart and the other mediastinal structures to the right.
An omphalocele is a displacement of abdominal contents into the umbilical cord. In contrast to an umbilical hernia an omphalocele is only covered with the peritoneum. The cause is an improper retraction of the physiologic umbilical hernia in the course of fetal development. As a consequence, no proper muscle formation could take place in this region.
Fig. 28 - Omphalocele
Fig. 28 Intestinal loops are visible in an omphalocele. The musculature is absent.
The prune-belly syndrome
A prune belly syndrome results from an absence of the entire abdominal wall musculature, which can be traced back to an early embryonic developmental disorder.
Fig. 29 - The prune-belly syndrome
Fig. 29 The child has no abdominal musculature and the abdomen resembles a prune.