Embryogenese
 
Leerdoelen

1 Leerdoelen
2 Overview
3 Gametogenesis
4 Fertilization
5 Prerimplantation
6 Implantation
7 Embryonale schijf
8 Embryonic phase
9 Fetal phase
10 Fetal membranes and placenta
11 Chromosomal and gene aberrations



1 Leerdoelen



Presentation of the learning aims of the individual modules of this course or, in other words, the knowledge that the student should acquire while working through this course material.



2 Overview


Introduction to the course using the individual module summaries.



3 Gametogenesis
What you should already know

At the end of this module you should know:

  • The origin and migration of the germ cells
  • The arrangement of the male gonads
  • The arrangement of the female gonads
  • The spermatogenesis
  • The oogenesis
  • General cytology
  • Mitosis
  • Meiosis


4 Fertilization
What you should already know

At the end of this module you should be able to:

  • Explain the ovulation process
  • Know the necessary steps which lead to spermatozoa being ready
  • Describe how the enabling of the spermatozoa takes place
  • Describe how the spermatozoon penetrates into the oocyte
  • Know the process whereby a zygote is formed


5 Preimplantation
What you should already know

At the end of this module you should be able to:

  • Describe the development of the embryo from the first cells to the blastocyst
  • Know the important stages of the preimplantation phase
  • Describe the importance of these stages
  • Know the duration of the preimplantation phase
  • The processes during fertilization that lead to the formation of the zygote


6 Implantation
What you should already know

At the end of this module you should be able to:

  • Describe the histological structures of the endometrium
  • Explain the phases of endometrial changes during the menstruation cycle
  • Know the effects of the hypophysial hormones in the regulation of the menstruation cycle
  • Explain the various stages of implantation
  • Know the fundamental mechanisms of the implantation at the molecular level
  • List the normal types of implantation and the anomalies of the extra-uterine pregnancies
  • List the various possibilities for hindering an implantation and thus a pregnancy


7 Embryonale schijf  


Wat u reeds dient te weten

Op het einde van deze module moet u meer weten over:

  • De differentiatie van de embryonale kiemlagen, ontstaan uit het trilaminaire embryo
  • Het mechanisme van gastrulatie, en voornamelijk de morfogenetische rol van de primitieve streep
  • De rangschikking van het intra-embryonale mesoblast, de segmentatie ervan en de vorming van de intra-embryonale coëloomholte
  • De vorming van de notochorda en de rol ervan in de differentiatie van zenuwweefsel
  • De stadia van neurulatie en de eerste stappen in de genese van het centrale en perifere zenuwstelsel


8 Embryonic phase
What you should already know

At the end of this module you should know:

  • The differentiations of the germinal layers during the fourth week of development that lead to an individualization of the embryo.
  • The key concepts of the embryonic period that describe the first stages of organogenesis.
  • The various types of congenital abnormalities and be able to cite a few characteristic examples.


9 Fetal phase
What you should already know

At the end of this module you should know:

  • The duration of the pregnancy and its various developmental stages.
  • Various techniques of prenatal diagnostics.
  • The differences among premature, full-term and post-term births.
  • The intrauterine development of the child.
  • Positions of the child during birth.
  • Swiss legal aspects of pregnancy termination (abortion).
  • Various causes of embryo-/ fetopathies and possibilities for therapy.
  • Sensitivity of the embryo or fetus to teratogenic substances.


10 Fetal membranes and placenta
What you should already know

At the end of this module the student should be able to:

  • name the fetal membranes and cavities together with their components and functions
  • distinguish between the maternal and fetal parts of the placenta
  • describe the macroscopic morphology of the placenta
  • explain the development of the placental structures during pregnancy and their influence on the physiologic functions of the placenta
  • name the structural and functional characteristics of the fetal blood circulation and the properties of the hemato-placental barrier
  • list the endocrine functions of the placenta
  • describe the peculiarities of twin pregnancies
  • name the pathologies of embryonic development (ectopic pregnancy, hydatid mole, fetal erythroblastosis) in connection with the fetal membranes


11 Chromosomal and gene aberrations
What you should already know

The student gains knowledge about the following topics:

  • The difference between various kinds of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations
  • Possible causes of such disorders
  • Interactions between genotype and the environment
  • Polygeny and abnormalities
  • General clinical symptoms of chromosomal aberrations
  • Basic molecular biology