17.4 Pathology



Inleiding


It is impossible within the scope of the material presented here to take up all of the possible disorders of the blood and the lymph-associated organs. Here the disorders that are the most relevant will be treated.

Meer info

Compilation of all primary
immunodeficiency syndromes

(German).



Hemoglobinopathies


Hemoglobinopathies are congenital disorders of the hemoglobin synthesis as a result of various genetic defects in the formation of the a or b chains.



Quantitative hemoglobinopathies (thalassemias)


Thalassemias are a group of autosomal-recessive hereditary diseases in which the synthesis of a globin chain is affected. In a disorder of the b chain synthesis a b-thalassemia is present while if the a chain is affected, this is termed an a-thalassemia. Thalassemias are mostly due to a mutation of the regulatory DNA sequence (LCR).
Also see: Hemoglobin

Meer info

Overview of the symptoms, clinical diagnosis and therapy



Structural hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell syndrome)


The congenital structural changes of individual hemoglobin chains are due to a mutation of the corresponding genes. The most frequent hemoglobinopathy is the homozygous form of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS disease). It arises due to a mutation of the b globin gene on chromosome 11p15.4. This results in an exchange of glutamine acid and valine at position 6 of the b chain. When the oxygen concentration is low, the HbS changes its 3D configuration and forms aggregates that lead to a sickle shape of the erythrocytes. These rigid erythrocytes become especially sequestered in the spleen and can, in addition, lead to vessel blockages.
Also see: Spleen diagram with open and closed circulation

Meer info

Overview of the symptoms, clinical diagnosis and therapy (German).



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