The hindgut extends from the left third of the transverse colon to the cloaca (rectum). In contrast to the midgut, no intestinal rotation occurs here but rather this part gets pushed to the left side by the midgut returning from the umbilical coelom.
It consists of:
- Transverse colon (left third)
- Descending colon
- Sigmoid colon
- Anal canal
Initially the hindgut dead-ends in the cloaca and is separated by the cloacal membrane from the ectodermal anal pit, the proctodaeum. In addition, at its end, it is connected to the allantois and to the mesonephric duct.
From stage 14, ca. 33 days, the cloaca flattens in the frontal plane and extends somewhat in the sagittal plane, whereby from the upper rear and from both sides a mesenchymal condensation, the urorectal septum, arises in the angle between the allantois and the hindgut. Through this mechanism, the cloaca is subdivided into the urogenital sinus (ventrally) and the anorectal canal (dorsally). (See details about the subdivision of the urorectal septum in the urinary system module).
In the cloacal region the urorectal septum thickens still more and forms the material for the deep perineum. In stage 19, ca. 46 days, the cloacal membrane ruptures and the endodermal part of the anal canal goes over into the ectodermal part of the proctodeum.
During this period the anorectal canal is closed by an epithelial plug and is recanalized again only in the early fetal period.