Icon module 12

Learning aims

12. Learning aims

Brève énumération, module par module, des objectifs poursuivis par ce cours. Autrement dit, des connaissances que l'étudiant devrait avoir assimilées au terme de l'étude de chaque module.

13. Overview

Ce survol privilégie une approche globale. Il donne des repères permettant de replacer les éléments de chaque module dans un contexte plus vaste.

14. Muscular system

The following knowledge is provided in this module:

  • The origin of the three muscle types
  • The development of the hypaxial and epaxial parts of the muscles based on the development of the somites and their differing innervation
  • The histological development of muscle fiber to maturity
  • The approximate segment level of the innervation of large muscle groups as well as the partial displacement
  • Congenital muscle ailments and their causes which can be understood by knowing muscle development
  • Formation of the 3-layered embryo

16. Cardiovascular system

  • The first signs of heart development as well as the location of the cardiogenic tissues
  • How the serial blood circulation system is converted to a parallel one during the course of embryonic development and which factors promote this development
  • The processes that occur in the partitioning of the atria and ventricles.
  • An enumeration of the arterial and venous systems with their various components that are near the heart
  • The relationships of the pericardial cavity in adults, taking into account pericardial development
  • The various nerves that are responsible for cardiac innervation

17. Blood and lymphatic tissue

At the end of this module you should be able to:

  • know the development from stem cells to differentiated blood cells
  • know the location where erythropoiesis occurs
  • have a concept of the functions of the various blood cells both before and after birth.
  • know the organs of the lymphatic system
  • know how they arise
  • know the difference between cell-derived and humoral immunity
  • have a concept of how immunological competence arises
  • Embryonic disk

18. Respiration tract

At the end of this module you should be able to:

  • know the various prenatal stages of lung development.
  • be able to list and localize the various cells that are typical for lung tissue.
  • know the components of the blood-air barrier.
  • be able to describe the development of the various somatic cavities.
  • know where the pericardio-peritoneal duct lies.
  • know the difference between the vasa publica and privata in the lungs.
  • be able to explain the occurrence of fistulas between the esophagus and trachea based on your knowledge of the development of the two structures.
  • know the various mechanisms in charge of the switch of the circulation systems at birth.
  • Embryogenesis
  • Cardiovascular system

19. Digestion tract

Students will be able to:

  • describe the various parts that are involved in forming the face.
  • trace the development of the teeth.
  • explain the innervation of the tongue from an embryologic point of view.
  • list the derivatives of the individual pharyngeal arches.
  • construct the relationship between the aortic and pharyngeal arches.
  • describe the individual portions of the intestine and know their definitive location in the abdomen.
  • describe the mesenteric relationships with the associated intestinal sections and blood vessels.
  • determine which blood vessel is responsible for which intestinal portion.
  • map out the course of the portal vein and explain it from an embryologic point of view.
  • know the individual parts of the pancreas and explain their derivation.
  • draw the relationships of the duodenal loops in a fetus.
  • discuss the development of the urogenital sinus with respect to the formation of the hind gut and anus.
  • Embryogenesis

20. Urinary sytem

At the end of this module you should be able to:

  • Describe the sequence of transitory and definitive anlagen of the upper urinary tract as well as their functions over the course of their development.
  • Describe how the lower urinary tract forms from the cloaca.
  • Explain some of the basic mechanisms that can lead to pathological development of the urinary system.
  • Embryonic disk
  • Embryonic period

21. Genital System

At the end of this module students should be able to:

  • list the genetic and hormonal factors that lead to sexual differentiation
  • describe the steps that occur in the differentiation of the testicles and ovaries
  • explain the formation of the internal and external genitals of both sexes
  • name the abnormalities that indicated disorders in the most important mechanisms of genital development

22. Nervous system

After finishing this module students should be able to:

  • describe typical features of the central and peripheral nervous systems
  • distinguish between primary and secondary neurulation
  • summarize the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of the nervous system
  • correlate the formation of the brain vesicle with the structures of the completely developed brain
  • name the main functional divisions of the brain and the peripheral nervous system
  • explain the histological and functional differentiation of nerve tissue cells (neurons and glial cells)
  • describe and interpret the importance of the basic phenomena that occur during brain development (apoptosis, cell migration, splicing)
  • explain the structural equivalents between embryonic development of the spinal cord and supraspinal centers
  • sketch out blood circulation in the brain
  • Embryonic disk
  • Embryonic period
  • Fetal period