Icon module 1

Learning aims

1. Learning aims

Brève énumération, module par module, des objectifs poursuivis par ce cours. Autrement dit, des connaissances que l'étudiant devrait avoir assimilées au terme de l'étude de chaque module.

2. Overview

Introduction au cours à l'aide des résumés des différents modules.

3. Gametogenesis

  • Origin and migration of the germ cells
  • Male gonadal primordium
  • Female gonadal primordium
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Oogenesis
  • General cytology
  • Mitosis
  • Meiosis

4. Fertilization

  • Explaining the ovulation process
  • Knowing the necessary steps which lead to spermatozoa being ready
  • Describing how the enabling of the spermatozoa takes place
  • Describing how the spermatozoon penetrates into the oocyte
  • Knowing the process whereby a zygote is formed
  • How the female genital tract is formed (anatomy)
  • Development of the oocyte in the ovary
  • How the male genital tract is formed (anatomy)
  • Spermatogenesis

5. Preimplantation

  • Describing the development of the embryo from the first cells to the blastocyst
  • Knowing the important stages of the preimplantation phase
  • Describing the importance of these stages
  • Knowing the duration of the preimplantation phase
  • The processes during fertilization that lead to the formation of the zygote

6. Implantation

  • Describe the histological structures of the endometrium
  • Explain the phases of endometrial changes during the menstruation cycle
  • Know the effects of the hypophysial hormones in the regulation of the menstruation cycle
  • Explain the various stages of implantation
  • Know the fundamental mechanisms of the implantation at the molecular level
  • List the normal types of implantation and the anomalies of the extra-uterine pregnancies
  • List the various possibilities for hindering an implantation and thus a pregnancy
  • Fertilization
  • Preimplantation

7. Embryonic disk

By the end of this module you should know about:

  • The differentiation of the embryonic germ layers, emanating from the trilaminar embryo
  • The mechanism of gastrulation and especially the morphogenetic role of the primitive streak
  • The arrangement of the intraembryonic mesoblast, its segmentation and the formation of the intraembryonic coelomic cavity
  • The formation of the notochord and its role in the differentiations of nerve tissue
  • The stages of neurulation and the first steps in the genesis of the central and peripheral nervous system
  • Placenta
  • Implantation

8. Embryonic phase

At the end of this module you should know:

  • The differentiations of the germinal layers during the fourth week of development that lead to an individualization of the embryo.
  • The key concepts of the embryonic period that describe the first stages of organogenesis.
  • The various types of congenital abnormalities and be able to cite a few characteristic examples.
  • Preimplantation
  • Implantation
  • Embryonic disk

9. Fetal phase

In this module you will get to know:

  • The duration of the pregnancy and its various developmental stages.
  • Various techniques of prenatal diagnostics.
  • The differences among premature, full-term and post-term births.
  • The intrauterine development of the child.
  • Positions of the child during birth.
  • Swiss legal aspects of pregnancy termination (abortion).
  • Various causes of embryo-/ fetopathies and possibilities for therapy.
  • Sensitivity of the embryo or fetus to teratogenic substances.
  • The embryonic period

10. Fetal membranes and placenta

At the end of this module the student should be able to:

  • name the fetal membranes and cavities together with their components and functions
  • distinguish between the maternal and fetal parts of the placenta
  • describe the macroscopic morphology of the placenta
  • explain the development of the placental structures during pregnancy and their influence on the physiologic functions of the placenta
  • name the structural and functional characteristics of the fetal blood circulation and the properties of the hemato-placental barrier
  • list the endocrine functions of the placenta
  • describe the peculiarities of twin pregnancies
  • name the pathologies of embryonic development (ectopic pregnancy, hydatid mole, fetal erythroblastosis) in connection with the fetal membranes
  • Preimplantation
  • Implantation

11. Chromosomal and gene aberrations

The student gains knowledge about the following topics:

  • The difference between various kinds of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations
  • Possible causes of such disorders
  • Interactions between genotype and the environment
  • Polygeny and abnormalities
  • General clinical symptoms of chromosomal aberrations
  • Basic molecular biology